The Causeway Community Finance Fund - One Year Later Part Two

 
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Part Two: Financial Exclusion

This is the second part in a two-part series that highlights our work on the Causeway Community Finance Fund. In this series we reflect on our key learnings, challenge some of our assumptions, and look to reimagine a financial system that can work for everyone, specifically those vulnerable residents in our communities who feel there is no other option but to resort to a payday lender.


In our first post, we described how the Causeway Community Finance Fund (CCFF) came to be in partnership with Alterna Savings, Frontline Credit Union, and Your Credit Union, and the many people we meet who are looking to break free from the predatory cycle of payday lending.


A major challenge resulting from the widening income gap in Canada is that low-income individuals are forced to make difficult choices when it comes to basic financial services. Those struggling with income insecurity now confront a financial services system in Canada that has left them behind. As a result of this financially exclusive system, many low-income individuals are underbanked and have little recourse but to access high-cost debt options. Fortunately, we are seeing new opportunities through our partners and members of the community who are interested in helping to create sustainable community banking options.

The New Faces of Financial Exclusion

Financial exclusion has long been thought to occur when individuals lack access to mainstream retail banking options. During our first year of operation, we were surprised to learn that every single person we met with actually had a bank account. They were all banked. The biggest reason that that they ended up getting caught in the payday lending debt trap was not because they were frivolous with their money or even that they had a large unexpected expense and no savings to cover it, but because they were underbanked and lacked access to credit and basic banking options. It’s astonishing to see that these people are forced to use payday lending outlets because they are unable to correct things like billing cycles, or to have the confidence to ask for overdraft protection, or generally to even feel comfortable entering their bank. Not one person we’ve met with since launching the CCFF has first asked their financial institution for a loan prior to coming to Causeway.

 One of our clients who we served through the Causeway Community Finance Fund

One of our clients who we served through the Causeway Community Finance Fund


What the proliferation of payday lending outlets in urban areas across Canada, combined with the lack of access, or perceived access, to mainstream retail banking options suggests is that a new pattern of financial exclusion has emerged. We see people who have, for many reasons, become systematically marginalized from mainstream retail banking and are given no other choice but to use high-cost debt options. These are the new faces of financial exclusion.

 

 

What is systemic marginalization?

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For low-income residents, not having access to basic financial services can mean the difference between using a payday loan and paying for groceries. To give an example of what we mean by someone who is systematically marginalized, let us share a couple of stories of those who have borrowed with the CCFF.

CCFF Blog Payday Lending Trap Graphic - Blog 2.png

One of the first people we served after our launch came to us with 4 payday loans, totaling almost $4000. At the time she was paying close to $800 a month in fees alone. In addition to her debt, she had poor credit history because of her ex-husband who had racked up thousands of dollars in bills prior to their divorce. Her low credit score meant that she didn’t qualify for a traditional loan. Given her circumstances, there was very little hope that she could break free from the payday lending debt cycle on her own. Although she had a steady income as well as the capacity to repay a loan over time, she was unable to access one through a mainstream financial institution on her own. After coming to the CCFF, we were able to help her connect with a partner credit union and she was able to get a loan.


Another person we served had 2 payday loans totaling close to $2000. As a newcomer to Canada, she got caught up in payday lending because she fell behind on her utility bills and she didn’t have a Canadian credit history. With limited income and 4 children to care for, her only option was to get a loan from a payday lender. Since she has come to Causeway, this same woman just paid off her loans and has officially broken free from the vicious cycle of payday lending. She now has Canadian credit history that she can draw from if she needs to in the future.

Each unique person who comes through our doors often shares a similar story and they are all difficult to hear. These people rely on fringe lenders to take care of their basic banking needs because of things like missing required identification to open a bank account, not being able to access overdraft protection, having no access to small-dollar credit, and even being denied credit because they are living on social assistance. These are the people who are being forgotten by mainstream financial services. As James Baldwin famously said, “anyone who has ever struggled with poverty knows how extremely expensive it is to be poor.” The faces of financial exclusion aren’t limited to Ottawa; these stories exist in virtually every community across Canada.

 Figure 1: With the new changes in Ontario, there is an increase in the use of installment loans. These loans are used for higher amounts with interest at almost 60%. A client looking for a loan of $6,250 was facing paying more than the loan itself in interest alone.

Figure 1: With the new changes in Ontario, there is an increase in the use of installment loans. These loans are used for higher amounts with interest at almost 60%. A client looking for a loan of $6,250 was facing paying more than the loan itself in interest alone.


Even with the recent changes to the payday loans act, which lowers the cost of borrowing to $15 per $100 borrowed, limits the fees on cashing government-issued checks and empowers municipalities to zone these outlets, we’re overlooking the central challenge. Why are people turning to payday lenders to begin with? These changes on their own are not enough to stop people from thinking that payday loans are their only option.

 

 

 

We have to do better to serve our most vulnerable residents

Through our experiences serving financially marginalized people, we can see that there is a market here that needs to be disrupted. For scalable disruption, we need to push forward with sustainable community banking options that provide accessible basic services. We need to foster more cross-sectoral partnerships like the one we have between Causeway and our credit union partners.


We refer to the Causeway Community Finance Fund as a social enterprise. We intentionally use this term because we want to make sure every day we move forward with a mindset of generating financial and social returns that will sustain us and our community. It’s not enough to maintain ourselves as just a program because the need is too great.


In Canada, debt is far too easy to get today and as a result, we’re one of the most heavily indebted countries in the world. It is no wonder why our most vulnerable residents have limited options that are often high cost when they need credit. Payday lenders who fill this need do very little to reinvest in our communities. Fortunately, there are examples of alternative options like community banking in Canada being led in Edmonton and Vancouver. Drawing from the experiences and models of these community banking initiatives, our ultimate goal is to create a solution that is scalable, replicable and helps even more people get the services they need.


As we progress over the next year, we will continue working with our partners to develop a community banking model that will bring sustainability to the people we serve and our own initiative.


If you’d like to join us in the development of a community banking model that works for everyone, is fair, and creates lasting social impact in your community, please contact us.

 
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The Causeway Community Finance Fund - One Year Later Part One

 
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Part 1: Financial Insecurity

The Causeway Community Finance Fund is one of the social enterprises operating under Causeway. Causeway is a community economic development agency that runs employment programs and social businesses to help people with barriers to employment find jobs.

This is the first part in a two-part series that highlights our work on the Causeway Community Finance Fund. In this series, we reflect on our key learnings, challenge some of our assumptions, and look to re-imagine a financial system that can work for everyone, specifically those vulnerable residents in our communities who feel there are no other options but to resort to a payday lender.

The Causeway Community Finance Fund (CCFF) has been operational as a small pilot for over one year with support from our three credit union partners, Alterna Savings, Frontline Credit Union, and Your Credit Union.

Since the launch of the CCFF, we met with a growing number of people, and media outlets who have leapt at the opportunity to learn more about a better and more responsible alternative to payday lending – the first program of its kind in Ontario.

The creation of the CCFF, despite its limited resources, has struck a nerve in the city — confronting the problem of the payday lending industry and fostering conversations around creating solutions.

 Doug Pawson during the launch of the Causeway Community Finance Fund - November 2016

Doug Pawson during the launch of the Causeway Community Finance Fund - November 2016

It didn’t take long before we began to notice common trends among the clients who were deeply indebted to payday lenders:

  • They struggle with income insecurity
  • They have access to only high-cost debt options
  • They require more support than our program could offer
 (Left to Right) Mathieu Fleury, Rob Paterson, Jeff Leiper, Don Palmer, Catherine McKenney, Doug Pawson, Yasir Naqvi - November 2016

(Left to Right) Mathieu Fleury, Rob Paterson, Jeff Leiper, Don Palmer, Catherine McKenney, Doug Pawson, Yasir Naqvi - November 2016

Why Start a Community Finance Fund?

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The Causeway Community Finance Fund (CCFF) was designed to support financially vulnerable individuals who find themselves trapped in the high cost cycle of interest and fees attached to payday lenders.

Recognizing that this cycle was a real issue for a significant number of our clients, Causeway created the Causeway Community Finance Fund (CCFF) which was designed to be a better alternative to payday lenders by offering fair loans at a reasonable rate. Individuals who come to the CCFF — many of whom with multiple payday loans — are given a consultation to find the best way to pay off their high interest loans.

After an initial consultation, we connect our clients – many of whom have little or no access to quality mainstream banking and financial services – to one of three local credit unions that have provided operational and financial support to Causeway: Alterna Savings, Frontline Credit Union and Your Credit Union.

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Why do so many people take out loans from payday lenders in the first place if it is so risky? Many Canadians who live from one pay cheque to the next turn to payday lenders to cover budget shortfalls due to income insecurity, unplanned life expenses, and the inability to access small-dollar credit options through traditional banking services. The reality for a lot of these borrowers is that they simply have no other choice. By accessing even one payday loan to cover a budget shortfall, they risk falling into a spiraling cycle of high-cost debt – a cycle that is extremely difficult to break out of.

Payday lenders offer short-term loans of up to $1,500 and according to the Canadian Consumer Financial Association (formerly the Payday Lenders’ Association of Canada), the average loan is $435 with a 10-day repayment period. The cost of a $100 loan, regulated by the provincial government’s Payday Lending Act, is $15 minimum.

To put this into perspective, the cost to a borrower for a 10-day $300 loan is $45 – an annual interest rate of 400%! 

 

Payday lending is symptomatic of a larger issue

Limited access to mainstream financial services is only one of the reasons why CCFF clients are more vulnerable to predatory lending services. One of the central challenges affecting our clients daily is the lack of income. Widening income inequality poses a significant threat to our most vulnerable residents who often rely on meagre social assistance and disability payments to survive. Many of our clients even forgo food to re-pay their payday loans.

Income inequality has been increasing steadily in Canada over the past 25 years. Figure 2 illustrates the widening of the income gap for those in the top 20% versus the stagnating middle 60% and bottom 20% of income earners.

What makes the widening income gap troublesome is that the net worth of the lowest earning Canadians is decreasing. Those who are in the lowest income quintile actually maintain a negative net worth (see Figure 3).

The decrease in net worth for the bottom 40% of Canadians means that many are not accruing the financial assets required to participate fully in economic and social life. The fact that low-income earners have negative net worth is a crisis situation for an income group that relies on virtually all their income to cover their basic needs.

This phenomenon is playing out before us in the experiences of those who come to Causeway to access a loan. People who lack enough income to get through the month often resort to payday lenders to cover budget shortfalls due to the inadequate amount of affordable housing in Ottawa, the rising cost of food, and the limited social and disability assistance provided. 

Since our launch we’ve met with well over 100 individuals, most of them living in deep poverty. The average net monthly income for our borrowers is $1,591, placing them below the Low-Income Cut Off measures. Many of our borrowers use fringe financial lenders for basic financial services. With average monthly expenses of $1,440, there’s little to no margin for error for our borrowers.


It’s easy to see why low-income residents are especially vulnerable to payday lending. With minimal savings and limited credit options available to them, they fall victim to an exploitive practice that is almost impossible to break free from.

Bank branches have been closing in many low-income areas around Canada as retail banking has changed its business model. This change prioritizes investors over customers. In some cases, there are even policies in place that prevents people living on social assistance to access a loan.

Taken together, these gaps require system-wide coordination between policy-makers, financial institutions and civil society.

Our experiences at Causeway have demonstrated there are gaps in the retail banking sector that can be overcome when we apply entrepreneurial approaches. Many Canadians, especially low-income individuals relying on high-cost credit options, a new pattern of financial exclusion is emerging.  In our next post we explore the changing nature of financial exclusion and why developing a new model for community banking is imperative. 

 Figure 1: Clients that come to the Causeway Community Finance Fund

Figure 1: Clients that come to the Causeway Community Finance Fund

 Figure 2: Average after tax income, by income group, Canada 1976-2011 (2011 constant dollars). Source: Employment and Social Development Canada, 2015

Figure 2: Average after tax income, by income group, Canada 1976-2011 (2011 constant dollars). Source: Employment and Social Development Canada, 2015

 Figure 3: Net Worth for Canadian Households by Income Quintile. Source: Statistics Canada (2017d). Table 2005-0003 - Survey of Financial Security.

Figure 3: Net Worth for Canadian Households by Income Quintile. Source: Statistics Canada (2017d). Table 2005-0003 - Survey of Financial Security.

Next: Financial Exclusion

The CCFF: 6 Month Update

It’s been a whirlwind first 6 months for the Causeway Community Finance Fund. When we launched in the fall of 2016, we had no idea that our initiative to support those stuck in the predatory trap of payday lending would gain attention across Ottawa, let alone the country. For those who may not know, we started the Causeway Community Finance Fund as a response to the proliferation of payday lending outlets and other fringe financial services in many of Ottawa’s most vulnerable neighbourhoods.

Many of the individuals we serve at Causeway, in our many programs and social enterprises, have come to rely on these fringe establishments for basic financial services. As a result, many have fallen into the spiraling cycle of high cost debt which is nearly impossible to break free from.

To put the payday lending problem in context:

  The vicious cycle of payday lending.  Graphic by Living Tapestries.

The vicious cycle of payday lending. Graphic by Living Tapestries.

  • In Ontario, there are over 800 payday lending outlets, providing up to$1.5 billion in loans to 400,000 customers
  • The average size of a payday loan in Ontario is $435
  • Over 70 known payday lenders operate in Ottawa alone. Many of these payday lending outlets operate in lower income areas.

 

 

Payday lenders offer short-term loans of up to $1,500 and according to the Canadian Consumer Finance Association (formerly the Payday Lenders’ Association of Canada) the average loan is $435 with a 10-day repayment period.

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  At the launch of the Causeway Community Finance Fund . (Pictured Above, L-R: Mathieu Fleury, Rob Paterson, Jeff Leiper, Don Palmer, Catherine McKenney, Doug Pawson, Yasir Naqvi. To read more about the launch, check out the following articles. [1]  )

At the launch of the Causeway Community Finance Fund. (Pictured Above, L-R: Mathieu Fleury, Rob Paterson, Jeff Leiper, Don Palmer, Catherine McKenney, Doug Pawson, Yasir Naqvi. To read more about the launch, check out the following articles.[1] )

Since our launch, I’ve met with several dozens of individuals looking for support to break free from the predatory cycle of payday lending. The need is far greater than what we anticipated and can support, but my hope is that the Community Finance Fund can spark change. The challenges associated with payday loans and those that rely on them are not one dimensional. It is not a low-income problem. It’s not financial irresponsibility either. It’s an income security challenge that is far more pervasive than even we could have anticipated.

 

Shortly after our launch, in January 2017, we received significant attention after an interview with CBC Ottawa. What was designed to be a follow-up to our launch turned into much more. That coverage led to a number of inquiries — from researchers and policy-makers and even other credit unions — across Canada and the US. All of the excitement and interest in our initiative, however, is underscored by the fact so many people recognize the growing problem payday lenders pose in communities across Ottawa and the country.

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In our first 6 months of operations we’ve learned lots. We’ve learned that those most in need have found themselves in a debt spiral that is nearly impossible to break free from. We’ve learned that character matters and it can be found in interesting and unsuspecting ways. We’ve also learned that strong partners matter. Reforming the current payday loan landscape is not a problem that Causeway can solve alone. We can, however, contribute by raising profile to the issue and sharing our insights an impacts. My hope is we can all work to create a future where accessible and affordable financial services is an option for those who now find themselves excluded from these services.

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Learning 1: The target market is more in crisis than we anticipated

There are a number of factors that contribute to people using payday lenders. It’s nearly impossible to generalize the usage of fringe financial services to merely one factor. I can say that for many, using payday lenders is not a function of irresponsible financial decision-making. The payday loan market is also not a low-income problem — although this segment of payday loan users is most vulnerable. The challenges posed by the growth in payday lenders is not a low-income issue, it’s an income security issue.

Those most in need have multiple payday loan issues

When we first began, we thought we’d serve individuals looking to break-free from 1-payday loan. The average payday loan in Ontario is $435. What became clear very quickly and persistently, however, were that the individuals we served were saddled with multiple payday loans and high-interest installment loans. Many of these installment loans were to consolidate existing payday loans. While providing some form of relief from a payday loan, the interest rates on these installment loans ranged from 27% — 59.9% — far higher than what a credit union might offer. Clearly there’s a need to do better to provide accessible and affordable solutions.

Budgeting revealed the underlying problem is income security

A major feature of our initiative is the support we provide upfront in the form of budgeting. For prospective borrowers, we work through 6-months of their bank statements. There are a number of reasons for doing this, including;

  • Meeting our charitable obligation;
  • Ensuring every borrower has the capacity to repay their loans without having to return to payday lenders;
  • To support everyone develop the capacity to move forward and break free from the predatory trap by creating a relationship with a credit union that can help to accrue assets once their loans are repaid.

What has become clear after looking at dozens of budgets is that once people are in the payday lending trap it is nearly impossible to break free. This is why we have seen people who have come to us with up to 4 active payday loans. With limited capacity to fully repay in a 30-day period with enough leftover to sustain themselves, individuals are left with little choice but to recycle the loans each month. It’s an unsustainable and unnecessary process that is designed to prey on those most vulnerable.

 Borrowers with the CCFF often live below the Low-Income Cut-Off Line for Ottawa.

Borrowers with the CCFF often live below the Low-Income Cut-Off Line for Ottawa.

Income security poses real challenges for how individuals meet their daily needs. In my experience, people don’t get into the payday lending trap because they can’t control their spending. For many people, they live on a fixed income or disability. The average income for CCFF borrowers is $1,823. This is far below the Low-Income Cutoff Line in Ottawa. For many, the challenge is managing day-to-day cash flow while living in poverty. People rarely find themselves in this struggle because they can’t control their spending. People who live in poverty face many barriers to financial services, including access to small amounts of credit.

A common theme has emerged, however. Every time I meet with a prospective borrower, I ask: ‘have you asked your current financial institution about a loan?’ In all but one instance the response to that question has been ‘no’. For many, they reply that their credit rating would prevent them from getting a loan. Some don’t feel comfortable going to their bank. Others don’t know how to advocate for their rights as a financial consumer. For all of them, however, the challenge remains that financial services, even at a basic level, remains inaccessible. Many people have found themselves turning to a payday loan because they lack basic services, including overdraft protection and accessing small amounts of credit. Income security is a costly social problem — one that is continuing to grow.

  Finding a solution.  Graphic by Living Tapestries.

Finding a solution. Graphic by Living Tapestries.

As a result of living in such precarious circumstances, people who are already struggling are forced to make difficult financial decisions, even when they know the consequences of those decisionsPeople make hard choices once they’re in the payday loan trap. For example, I’ve seen people decide whether they should pay their rent or buy food but one thing they are sure to do is, repay their payday loans. When looking at prospective borrowers’ budgets, our credit union partners have asked many times, ‘what does this person spend on food?’ or ‘how does this person afford to eat?’ unfortunately, for many, they resort to using food banks, or not eating at all. These are the kinds of experiences that shed light on the layers of complexity posed by income insecurity.

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Learning 2: Character matters

Watching people struggle to make sense of their payday loan challenges has given me a new appreciation for how I assess character. For those who have no option but to resort to a payday lender to access basic financial services, character isn’t found in what we might typically think is rational. I have come to appreciate that those with the most payday loan debts arrive in such a precarious situation because they want to repay their loans, in full, every month. These individuals don’t want to carry debts; they want to break free from the trap but have no means to do so.

 The average borrower from the CCFF has over 2 payday loans totaling $1,235. The average payday loan in Ontario is $435.

The average borrower from the CCFF has over 2 payday loans totaling $1,235. The average payday loan in Ontario is $435.

What is seemingly an irrational decision becomes completely rational when you listen to people explain why they’ve resorted to having multiple payday loans. I’ve come to find the rationality behind the seemingly irrational decision to continue to use payday loans despite knowing the fees and costs attached to such loans. People genuinely want to pay their bills and meet their obligations. The systems we perpetuate by allowing payday lenders to proliferate, however, make it easy for many of us to assume that repeat borrowers are simply irresponsible. The average amount of payday loans people come to us is over 2 and totals, on average $1,235. The average payday loan is $435 in Ontario. One borrower had come to us with 4 payday loans for over $4,000. I think — at least in my limited experience — that character is built when people commit and work to meet their obligations. It’s easy to run from such debts — the people we’re serving choose not to.

The time to lead is now

What happens to communities that are overrun with payday lenders? It’s not just the users that suffer. It’s the entire community. These fringe financial service providers invest little to nothing into our communities. If we are going to build financial resilience for the growing number of users of payday lenders in Ottawa, and across Canada, we need to build resilient financial systems designed to support and serve those most vulnerable.We all have a role to play in developing these systems and we’re just scratching the surface of what that could resemble.

One only needs to look to the US and the practice of redlining to find possible solutions to financial disenfranchisement. Redlining was a practice in the 1960s that denied, or made financial services inaccessible to those who lived in low-income and racially segregated areas. In response, the US federal government passed the Community Reinvestment Act, which required (and in many cases incentivized) banks to apply the same lending criteria to all the communities they serve.

Unfortunately, in Canada payday lenders are not considered a financial institution because they do not take deposits. So as the big banks continue earn record profits — and layoff and close branches in low-income areas, people are left with little choice but to resort to fringe financial services. We need to find a ‘Made in Canada’ solution to our growing financial security problems. We most certainly have the infrastructure to do so. What has made it difficult to effectively regulate payday lenders is they occupy a space between provincial and federal legislation and regulations. We need to work to reconcile the regulatory imbalances and the uneven financial services sector that has resulted. We can do better and I’m optimistic we will.

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Learning 3: Strong partners matter

 A loan with the CCFF and our credit union partners will charge a total of $67 in interest for one year. The same loan with a payday lender for 30 days will cost $322 in fees.

A loan with the CCFF and our credit union partners will charge a total of $67 in interest for one year. The same loan with a payday lender for 30 days will cost $322 in fees.

We’re incredibly fortunate to have our credit union partners involved and helping us. What makes our initiative unique is that we have three local partners — Alterna SavingsFrontline Credit Union and Your Credit Union — helping bridge the financial accessibility gap. In our early planning stages we didn’t want to simply become a cheaper source of capital for those in need. We knew the challenge for many was access to mainstream financial services. In order to overcome those challenges it was imperative for us to partner with credit unions, who have in their DNA, the needs of their communities in mind.

We have a great opportunity to help those in need create a relationship with a financial institution that can help them meet their needs long-term. Some key stats about our initiative that highlight the need for our credit union partners, include:

  • The average term of our borrowers is 18 months — far higher than we anticipated
  • The average loan is $1,531 — again far higher than we anticipated
  • The total number of loans we’ve assisted to facilitate is $18,250 — yet the demand has been much, much greater

We have helped save thousands of dollars in payday loan fees for our borrowers. The total cost of interest and fees attached to a CCFF one-year loan is a fraction of what a 30-day payday loan would charge. My hope is that borrowers will, once their loans are paid off, start accruing assets of their own. Perhaps they will open up savings accounts or even become homeowners. One thing is clear, however, they will not be able to do so if they pay thousands of dollars in payday loan fees every month. We’re helping those most in need keep more of their money.

Our credit union partners help not only with the administration of the loan once we make a referral, but they also monitor repayment and provide reports to us. I hope that as we continue to work together they will also learn more about the complexities of payday lending and develop solutions of their own to help overcome the problem. This will, of course, take time and require the support of governments, the financial services sector and civil society. But I think real change is possible if we pursue this with pragmatic and relentless incrementalism.

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What’s next for us?

Although we’re only finishing up the first 6-months of our pilot, we’re already thinking ahead. So what’s next for us? We are going to continue to push ahead and serve individuals most in need. We will continue to work with our credit union partners to tweak our financial model. We know already that our assumptions about the size and length of loans were higher and longer than anticipated. That means we need to be mindful that we can’t burn through our capital too quickly. We need to both balance our budgets and still find a way to serve those with the greatest need.

  The neighborhood of Vanier has over 30 payday lenders within a 6KM radius.  Map created by Douglas Pawson

The neighborhood of Vanier has over 30 payday lenders within a 6KM radius. Map created by Douglas Pawson

We are now working with community leaders and partners to explore a storefront location in the Vanier neighborhood. This is an area littered with payday lenders and, not surprisingly, where many low-income residents live. Taking on such an initiative will need to be incremental, which is why we’ll start with a ‘pop-up’ shop and use that to learn where the most pressing needs are. Having a storefront location will by no means guarantee success for us. It will allow us to continue to raise profile to the significant issue that payday lenders cause for our most vulnerable residents and communities. A storefront location allows us to be present and confront these issues head on.

Given the trajectory of our work, we need to continue to raise loan capital. We will have to find innovative and new ways to raise such capital, knowing that we’re investing in people with no security and limited to no assets. The segment of people we’re working with has rarely been invested in — but they’re worth the risk. We’ll have to find compelling ways to make it happen.

Thank you again to all of you who have supported us and our work.

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For more information:

To learn more about the Causeway Community Finance Fund, contact us at the information below:

Doug Pawson, Director of Social Business & Social Finance

613–725–3494 ext 105 | dpawson@causewayworkcentre.org

 

Rachel McKeen, Communications

613–72503494 ext 621 | rmckeen@causewayworkcentre.org

 

About Causeway:

Causeway Work Centre transforms lives and fuels community economic development in the Ottawa region through an integrated network of innovative training and employment programs, one-on-one support, cross-sector partnerships and by creating socially minded businesses.

To learn more visit our website.